Ethiopia 

  • 109,2 million people

  • 79% lives in rural areas

  • National Poverty 25%

  • Rural Poverty 26%

  • Urban Poverty 15%

    *World bank data for 2015/16

N

Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP)

N

Coverage

Regions of Afar, Amhara, Dire Dawa, Harari, Oromia, SNNP, Somalí, and Tigray

N

Beginning of the program

2005. The project evaluates phase 4 of the program (PSNP4), which began in 2015.

N

Target population

Chronically food-insecure households.

N

Institution in charge

Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) and Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA)

N

Components

  • Temporary Direct Support: Conditional monetary transfers for public works and/or unconditional cash transfers for pregnant women or women with children under 5 years old.
  • Permanent Direct support: Unconditional cash transfers Promotion of income-generating activities: coaching, access to credit, and economic aid for the poorest households.
N

Objective

The PSNP has the objective of improving food security, asset holdings, and access to basic social services in rural areas.

N

Improved Nutrition through Integrated Basic Social Services with Social Cash Transfer (IN-SCT)

N

Coverage

Villages of Adami Tulu and Dodota (Oromia). Halaba and Shashego.

N

Beginning of the program

2015

N

Target population

Temporary Direct Support (TDS) and Permanent Direct Support (PDS) clients of PSNP.

N

Institution in charge

Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs

N

Components

  • Access to health and nutrition services.
  • Promotion of practical agricultural activities and nutrition (through home gardens and poultry).
N

Objective

The objective of the program is to increase social and health services acceptance from the recipients of PSNP4 and to improve their knowledge and practices regarding nutrition, health, child security, and sensible agriculture for nutrition.

The articulation between social protection programs and productive rural development can help poor and vulnerable households breaking the cycle of disadvantage and preventing the intergenerational transmission of poverty. The complementarity can also contribute to increasing the resilience of households in the face of external shocks, such as the one we are currently facing as a result of COVID-19.

The study of the linked implementation of the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) and the Improved Nutrition through Integrated Basic Social Services with Social Cash Transfer (IN-SCT) pilot highlights the recent adjustments in the fundamental principles that underlie the country’s approach to agricultural development and poverty reduction as positive steps.

The impact evaluation results showed positive impacts, especially in the livestock sector, where both the share of households owning some livestock and the average herd size increased substantially. Additionally, the study found positive effects of the combination of PSNP and IN-SCT on other productive variables such as ownership of farm tools, crop production/diversification, and non-farm entrepreneurial activity.

Despite the positive results and the increasingly understood role of coherence between social protection and agriculture at higher levels, few shortcomings related to the design and implementation of the PSNP + IN-SCT undermined the effects.

Several opportunities can be utilized to improve the coherence between the two sectors: i) Strengthen the delivery and accessibility to improved agricultural inputs, services, and technologies for PSNP clients; ii) Put in place clear roles and responsibilities for relevant actors; iii) Ensure that the right actors are included into the coordination mechanisms; iv) Address weak coordination at mid-level bureaucracy, and (v) adjust the value of the PSNP transfer.

Results

Impact Evaluation

  • The study focused on productive effects. PSNP + IN-SCT has produced some productive impacts on the mother-child sample but not on the households with children under-5.
  • Both the share of households owning some livestock and the average herd size has increased substantially. It also led to increased production of livestock by-products and increased crop diversification. These outcomes are indicative of increased savings/accumulation (livestock) and increased addaptative capacity (diversification).
  • Paid labor supply declined in both the agricultural and non-agricultural sector, while non-farm entrepenurial activity increased.
  • There were no impacts on the proportion of children who had access to minimum acceptable diets or dietary diversity and other variables such as household resilience to crop related shocks.

 

 

Institutional Analysis

  • At federal level, there are relevant coordination bodies of PSNP. Key sub-national implementing bodies of PSNP (i.g. Public Work Technical Committee and Livelihoods Technical Committee) were excluded from the IN-SCT design and implementation and this undermined overall institutional coherence. This has limited the oportunity to liaise and secure the support of these comitteees for the IN-SCT.
  • At woreda and kebele subnational levels:
  • The woreda PWTC and LTC were also not involved in the IN-SCT coordination. Instead, the programme has stablished a new cooordination mechanism called woreda steering committee. The committee was composed of relevant woreda offices including WoLSA, Woreda Agriculture, Food Security, Health, Education, among others, and it has led to good coordination at woreda level.
  • At kebele level, Food Security Task Force (FSTF) is an existing PSNP structure and was a relevant coordination body that has supported the IN-SCT. In the IN-SCT implementation Kebeles, social workers were recruited by the program and included in the kebele FSTF. They worked closely with development agents, health extentions workers and school teachers to ensure the referral and linkage of TDS/PDS with social services. This was one of the key value additions of IN-SCT to PSNP4.

Entities

Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA)

MoLSA aims to establish industrial peace, keep the health and security of the employees in the workplace, improve working conditions and the environment, and promote efficient and equitable labor services. It also seeks to keep the social wellbeing of citizens’ development.

Ministry of Agriculture (MoA)

The Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) is the Ethiopian Government ministry in charge of rural and agricultural development policies at the federal level. The powers and duties of the MoA include conservation and use of forest and wildlife resources, food security, water use, and small-scale irrigation, monitoring events affecting agricultural development and early warning system, promoting agricultural development, and establishing and providing agriculture and rural technology training.

 

Evaluation Methodologies

Impact Evaluation

  • Methodology: Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW) Difference in Differences
  • Objective: This evaluation studies the effects of PSNP/IN-SCT in productive variables that include agricultural production, non-farming activities, the use of productive assets, amongst others.

The study design included a comparison of three treatment groups (arms):

  1. The treatment arm (T) composed of IN-SCT beneficiaries (new and existing PSNP clients that also started benefiting from the IN-SCT package);
  2. The “pure control” group that included households from the same communities as the treated households but were not clients of PSNP or IN-SCT;
  3. The only PSNP4 group composed of new and existing PSNP clients that did not benefit from IN-SCT. 
  • Institution in charge: FAO-Rome with local consultants and officials
  • Tools:

Quantitative:

  • Data was gathered from both participant and non-participant households of the evaluated programs. Base and end-line surveys were conducted.
  • Two samples were defined for the evaluation:

The mother-child sample is composed of 1,920 households with pregnant or lactating women or children under 2 years of age.
It is designed to capture the IN-SCT impacts on health and nutrition variables for women and children.

The Children Under 5 sample is composed of 1,200 households with children under 5 years of age.
It is designed to provide the information needed to capture the In-SCT impact on food security and general wellbeing of the households.

Institutional Analysis

 

Objective:

This analysis aims to study the coherence between social protection, health and nutrition services, and agriculture by studying the articulation between the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) and the Improved Nutrition through Integrated Basic Social Services with Social Cash Transfer (IN-SCT) pilot in Ethiopia. As an integral part of PSNP4, the IN-SCT was designed to try specific elements of PSNP4 (i.g. links to health and nutrition services and sensible agriculture for nutrition) to expand on at the beginning of the program.

Specifically, the study tries to answer the following questions:

a. How do social protection and access to complementary services articulate and coordinate to improve food security and nutrition within IN-STC?

b. What is the institutional architecture of the IN-SCT program and how does it differ from PSNP?

c. How strong is the coordination between social protection and access to complementary services in the IN-SCT program?

d. What is the added value of a stronger articulation between social protection, agriculture, and complementary services when improving the health and nutrition of the beneficiaries?

e. What are the enabling factors and the barriers that affect the articulation between social protection and access to complementary services within IN-STC?

f. What lessons can be obtained from the IN-STC pilot program to inform future efforts to strengthen the coherence between social protection, health and nutrition services, and agriculture?

 

  • Institution in charge: FAO-Rome with local officials and consultants.
  • Tools:
    • Secondary sources revision
    • 8 interviews to key informants
    • 4 focus group discussions
    • Discussions with federal and regional actors to complement the findings.

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Universidad de los Andes | Vigilada Mineducación. Reconocimiento Personería Jurídica resolución 28 del 23 de febrero de febrero de 1949 Minjusticia